International Research Groups
17 International Research Groups of scientists (IRG) have received grants for scientific projects to develop different aspects of science, technologies and machinery: starting from Defect-Free Technologies in Electron Beam Welding and Improvement of Deep Optomechanical Waste Sorting up to Development of Multiscale Approaches in Mechanobiology for Early Cancer Diagnostics.
The total amount provided for a scientific project realization accounts for 12 million rubles (4 million rubles for each phase), while one third of this amount is to be spent on cooperation with foreign partners. Every IRG includes local and foreign professors, also young scientists, University staff, postgraduate students and students take part in development of innovation projects.
At the moment more than 50 international scientists from 28 universities of ten countries are taking part in the international research projects of PNRPU: Great Britain, Germany, France, Bulgaria, Israel, Poland, Belgium, Austria, Italy and Norway.
The list of International Research Groups (IRG) of scientists
based at Perm National Research Polytechnic University
|No.||IRG project title||Head of IRG||Foreign scientist(s)||Project description|
|IRG 1||Mathematical Simulation of Turbulent Mixing of Fuel and Air in Low-Emission Combustion Chamber of Gas-Turbine Engine and Its Implementation on Supercomputers with the Use of Accelerators||Valery Georgievich Avgustinovich, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor at Aircraft Engines Department||Thornber Ben, Great Britain||The current task set by the Government of Russia is development and production of the world-level energy equipment. For this purpose, the Strategy of Power Engineering till the Year 2030 was developed (in March 2011). The target for installation of imported equipment does not exceed 20%. Implementation of this strategy requires large amount of research and development. One of the key elements (critical technology) of development of modern power engineering is creating gas turbines with low emission. Typically, low-emission combustion technology is "know-how", and is not available at the world market, which gives the manufacturers competitive advantages.
The objective of the project is technology development of systems design of air-fuel mixture preparation for low-emission combustion chambers – mixtures of nitrogen oxides (less than 25 ppm - parts per million) and carbon - on the basis of mathematical modelling of physical processes. These systems are critical for design of combustion chambers, and ensure successful solution of the problem.
|IRG 2||Improving and Developing Defect-Free Technologies of Electron Beam Welding for Products with Finished Sizes||Vladimir Yakovlevich Belenky, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor at Welding Production and Technology of Constructional Materials Department||Mladenov Georgi, Bulgaria;
Koleva Elena, Bulgaria
|As compared to the conventional welding methods applicable to joint material, electron-beam welding (EBW) has a number of advantages: high power density of electron beam, simple control by energy input into metal, small area of thermal effect, uniform strength of the welded metal-and-base material joint, vacuum welding and others. These advantages determine extensive technological capabilities of electron-beam welding of reactive, non-ferrous and high-strength metals, and of refractory and heat-resistant alloys used to manufacture critical parts. Particular attention should be given to development of EBW technologies for products with finished size dimensions without any further treatment.
The objective of the project is to develop defect-free EBW technologies for products with finished size dimensions.
|IRG 3||Magnetohydrodynamic Stirring of Liquid Metal and Its Influence on the Structure of Solidifying Alloys||Stanislav Yurievich Khripchenko, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor at Applied Physics Department||Golbraikh Ephim, Israel;
Kapusta Arkady, Israel;
Mikhailovich Boris, Israel
|The project is aimed at solving the problem of controlling the structure and properties of aluminum alloys using adjustable action on the crystallizing alloy with toroidal and poloidal stirring flows activated by variable magnetic fields. Such influence allows formation of an improved structure for ingots and shaped casting.
Using travelling and rotating magnetic fields with an opportunity to regulate them separately when stirring the crystallizing liquid metal is the world level advanced technology allowing the following:
1. A great degree of homogenization in cast structure;
2. Creating homogeneous fine grained structure of solid solutions, decrease of unit fraction, also refinement and uniform distribution of the second (intermetallic) phases;
3. Elimination of shrinkage defects in the ingot bulk;
4. Improvement of mechanical properties in cast products;
5. Increase of rust resistance for multialloys including stress corrosion;
6. Decrease of thermal treatment time and aging of thermohardening alloys.
|IRG 4||Nanotechnology of Bio-Chips for Cancer Monitoring||Lev Nikolaevich Krotov, Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Associate Professor, Head of Applied Physics Department||Litsyn Simon, Israel;
Shacham Yosef Yakov, Israel
|Recent achievements both in science and everyday life have resulted in availability of fundamentally new techniques of investigation of biological objects, the results of which are finding ever-widening application in medicine and engineering. The use of bio-chips in medicine grows like an avalanche. In this area we can expect significant results in the diagnostics, treatment and prevention of many human diseases in the immediate future. This technique finds use in the diagnostics of malignant tumors as well.
As it is known, the methods of detecting bowel cancer in its early stages have a decisive effect on a decline in mortality and have a great social and economic importance. Therefore, at present, one of the main problems in the treatment of people suffering from cancer is prompt and reliable diagnostics of the disease. This aim may be attained by the application of the modern methods of diagnostics, in particular, those based on the use of bio-chips.
The objective of the project is to reduce the mortality among the patients suffering from cancer, and can be achieved through the improvement of reliability of early diagnostics based on the use of bio-chips.
|IRG 5||Development and Laboratory Study of Software for Simulation of Convective and Magnetohydrodynamic Processes in Rotating Systems||- Rodion Aleksandrovich Stepanov, Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Professor at Mathematical Modelling of Systems and Processes Department
- Petr Gotlobovich Frik, Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Professor at Mathematical Modelling of Systems and Processes Department
|Plunian Franck, France;
Nataf Henri-Claude, France;
La Rizza Patrick, France;
Kess Mouloud, France;
Sommeria Joel, France;
Ponty Yannick; France;
Pinton Jean-Francois, France;
Bourgoin Mickael, France
|At the moment the problem of development and implementation of high technology computer applications describing behavior of convective and magnetohydrodynamic processes in different systems is of great importance. The project is focused on development of a complex approach for an effective solution of this problem which includes a range of fundamental problems of Physics of Liquid Metals and Atmosphere, application of the resulted solutions to describe technological processes, software development and its verification through laboratory experiments.
The essence of the project is development of advanced high performance computational and laboratory measuring technologies which are in great demand for solving applied and fundamental problems of mechanics for conductive and non-conductive liquids. The suggested work is considered unique, because it makes it possible to perform the whole necessary software product within one International Research Group combining theoretical, numerical and experimental specialists.
|IRG 6||Developing Scientific Foundations and Experimental Verification of Reliability Evaluation Techniques for Advanced (Nanocrystalline) Materials Used for Production of New Generation Gas-Turbine Engines||Oleg Borisovich Naimark, Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Professor at Mathematical Modelling of Systems and Processes Department||Palin-Luc Thiery, France;
Froustey Catherine, France;
Saintier Nicolas, France;
Lataillade Jean-Luc, France
|The project is devoted to experimental and theoretical study of transition principles from disperse to macroscopic fracture under conditions of dynamic, shock-wave, fatigue (high-cycle and giga-cycle) loadings to predict dynamic strength and fatigue life of advanced materials in aviation motor industry (titanium and aluminum alloys, ceramics including submicroscopic and nanostructured ones), also development of new generation light-weight armor in aircraft engines.
Based on unconventional experimental and structural researches, transitional principles from disperse to microscopic fracture, nonlinear kinetics and fracture staging, connection between regular dynamic and structural scaling during formation of fracture surfaces as the most important characteristic of the materials current state under conditions of high-cycle and giga-cycle fatigue loading with the purpose to determine the fatigue life of advanced materials in aviation motor industry including cases of random dynamic exploitation will be determined.
|IRG 7||Development and Industrial Testing of Sparingly Alloyed Iron-Carbon Alloys with the Basic Structure of Noncarbidic Nanobainite for Heavy Loaded Constructions and Cast Parts||Yury Nikolaevich Simonov, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor at Metal Science and Heat Treatment of Metals Department|| Mladen Georgiev, Bulgaria;
Tatiana Avdjieva, Bulgaria
|The target of the project is development and implementation of new sparingly alloyed iron-carbon alloys with the structure of noncarbidic nanobainite with ultimate indices of strength and reliability for heavy loaded junction pieces, such as subs and couplings for oil producing industry.
Within the framework of the project in cooperation with a group of Bulgarian scientists, headed by Professor M.N. Georgiev (Doctor of Technical Sciences), it is planned to develop compositions of sparingly alloyed iron-carbon alloys with the structure of noncarbidic nanobainite and produce sampling laboratory melting of the achieved compositions; then to research phase and structural transformations, the obtained structure and properties in these alloys. Based on the conducted researches, develop heat treatment modes of such alloys in order to obtain the structure of noncarbidic nanobainite. In the end of the project it is planned to produce industrial prototypes of junction pieces, such as subs and couplings for oil producing industry and provide industrial testing of them.
|IRG 8||Functional Magnetic and Polymeric Nanocomposites: Structural Design and Simulation||Yury Lvovich Raikher, Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Professor at Applied Physics Department||Christian Holm, Germany;
Rudolph Weeber, Germany;
Conrad Breitsprecher, Germany;
Régine Perzynski, France;
Raphael Pereira Gomes, France
|Recently the systems called soft magnetic materials (SMM) have become the focal point; they are highly sensitive to magnetic fields which makes them appropriate for different applications.
An immensely increasing interest in SMM has led to accumulation of great amount of experimental information concerning their properties, which has still not been systematized. Now, therefore, there is an instant demand of SMM theory, if there is no clear understanding of magnetomechanical behavior of these materials, it is impossible to use their unique functional properties to full extent: magnetic control of motion and objects shape.
The main idea of the project is a detail study of relation between internal structure and SMM properties outside and inside the magnetic field and mechanical stressed-strained states. In order to do it, it is supposed to create model composite materials and study them through experiments, theory and simulation.
|IRG 9||Studying Early Fracture Precursors in Solids and Developing Advanced Methods of Monitoring Them||Oleg Anatolievich Plekhov, Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Professor at Mechatronics Department||Alberto Carpinteri, Italy;
Amedeo Manuello, Italy;
Luca Susmel, Great Britain;
Jean-Christophe Batsale, France;
Jürgen Bär, Germany
|The researches of the international group will be focused on classification and effectiveness analysis of using different processes accompanied by the accumulation of damages and transition from disperse to macroscopic fracture in metals and alloys used in aircraft engineering. The development of experimental methods allowed a high precise registration of heat dissipation processes, acoustic emission, neutron emission which accompany solid fracture processes. However, the issues of classification, modelling and commercial use of these results are not considered as fully solved. In particular, they refer to analysis of new fracture precursors, such as neutron emission which has recently been found in scientific work of the Italian group from the present project.
The fundamental project problem solution will allow development of new effective methods of monitoring current state of metal materials. The practical result of the project will be solving the problem of safe transport exploitation by means of rapid evaluation of the part or construction current state which suffers cyclic fracture.
|IRG 10||Developing Multiscale Approaches of Mechanobiology at Early Cancer Diagnostics||Olga Sergeevna Gileva, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor at Applied Physics Department||Alain Arneodo, France;
Francoise Argoul, France;
Annick Lesne, France;
Manfred Radmacher, Germany;
Francois Amblard, France
|The target of the project is developing interdisciplinary principles of early diagnostics and risks assessment in oncology based on mechanobiology approaches taking into consideration the implication of physical factors involved into the mechanotransduction process ranging from a cell to a tissue scales. Mechanotransduction approaches describe cellular processes which transmit mechanical reactions of cells to their physical medium providing scaling transfers ranging from cells to tissues scales. Using advanced methods [optical stretcher method, coherent phase microscopy, atomic force microscopy, high resolution profilometry, mammography, infrared scanning] will allow researching intracellular processes influencing the cytoskeletal structure and occurring in property changes of cell viscoelasticity, nonlinear dynamics of cell phase thickness, behavior peculiarities of a set of cells and tissues under normal conditions in case of cancer and tumors, which will give bases to assess cancer development staging starting from an early dysplasia up to metastasis, and will predetermine early anticancer therapy.|
|IRG 11||Evaluation of Filtration Properties of Oil Pools in Perm krai on Basis of Simulation of Two-Phase Filtration and X-ray Tomography of Core||Sergei Vladislavovich Galkin, Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, Professor at Oil and Gas Technologies Department||Jann Rune Ursin, Norway;
Aly Anis Hamouda, Norway
| The problem of selecting the optimal oil pool development systems and increasing oil recovery coefficient is dictated by scientific study of the matters related to filtration properties of collectors [collection header] with regard to discontinuous structure of oil deposit first of all. The application of advanced methods of structural determination of pore space in combination with simulation of filtration with the use of core material is essential to develop the best technologies of oil recovery.
Hence the scientific research being performed by Perm National Research Polytechnic University and the University of Stavanger involves simulation of fluid filtration at the core of collectors [collection headers] of Perm deposits and study of the results of application of various technologies of oil recovery increase (acidizing, injection of chemical reagents, associated gas recovery, etc).
|IRG 12||Innovative Technologies of Completion and Repair of Oil Wells||Sergei Evgenievich Chernyshov, PhD in Technical Sciences, Associate Professor at Oil and Gas Technologies Department||David Macdonald, Great Britain||In development of oil and gas deposits in Russia and the CIS countries, including oil deposits characterized by not easily recoverable resources associated with low-permeable collectors [collection header], as well as by lower and abnormally low reservoir pressure, particular attention should be given to application of technologies which make it possible to retain filtration properties of producing formations, preclude contamination of bottomhole area and provide conditions for potential production rate during completion and repair of wells. .
In this connection, there is the need for theoretical and laboratory research with the aim to develop innovative materials and technologies of completion and repair of oil wells, to design special killing, repair and completion fluids which allow precluding contamination of bottomhole area and carrying out pilot and industrial tests of the project results at the oil deposits.
|IRG 13||Study into the Pattern of Liquid Fuel Spraying in High-Temperature Combustion Chambers of Gas-Turbine Engines||Aleksei Matveevich Sipatov, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor at Aircraft Engines Department||Sergey Karabasov, Great Britain;
Anton Markesteijn, Great Britain
|Nowadays the issues of environmental protection and high energy efficiency of aircraft engines are pressing. The emission standards are getting more and more tightened. In this regard, the high-quality spraying of fuel is the key challenge related to both emission of noxious substances and reliable ignition of combustion chamber which impair the spraying significantly. The challenge becomes more serious by the fact that the necessity to reduce the engine weight and to prolong its service life calls for reduction of fuel pressure differential in the fuel nozzles and of overall dimensions of the combustion chamber.
The objective of the project is to study the pattern of liquid fuel spraying in high-temperature combustion chambers of gas-turbine engines, and to develop spraying device (fuel nozzle) for new aircraft engines.
|IRG 14||Development of New Intensification Principles of Chemical Processes in the Heterophase System Through Energy Efficient Activation of Interphase Transfer||Vladimir Vasilievich Volkhin, Doctor of Chemical Sciences, Professor at Chemistry and Biotechnology Department||Krzysztof Kaczmarski, Poland||The basic objective of the project is to determine a new scientific trend for development of energy efficient intensification principles of chemical and biocatalytic heterogeneous reactions used in technologies of environmental management and in chemical industry, based on the use of AMT with an optimized complex of physical and chemical characteristic developed on the basis of new-type catalysts that are capable of oriented concentration and acceleration of chemical reaction directly in the area of its predominant location (close to the phase interface) in heterophase system.
The essence of the project is the following: the key element of solution to the problem of energy efficient intensification of heterogeneous reactions is AMT. So far just a few options have been known. The general principles of selection of composition and structure of such substances are not available. Besides, solution of this problem has been made possible only now due to development of new technologies such as nanotechnologies.
|IRG 15||Optimization and Risks Assessment Inherent to Spatial Location of Dwelling and Industrial Facilities under Different Scenarios of Human Settlement System Development||Svetlana Valentinovna Maksimova, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor at Urban Studies Department||Didier Vancutzem, Belgium;
Piotr Lorens, Poland
|At the moment urban planning and design in Russia is very different from those of the market economies, as they are based on the principles of the Soviet planned economy, while economic conditions require different new approaches.
The purpose and outcome of the project is to develop a system to support strategic decision-making in the field of spatial planning which promotes development of housing, social infrastructure and reasonable location of industrial projects.
The project is unique in developing a complex technology of spatial planning which enables for a multi-criteria spatial research without significant costs for the municipalities.
It is suggested that the project will be based on the use of the integrated model of spatial development, which contains an extensive library of mathematical, statistical and adaptive methods, and is integrated with GIS.
|IRG 16||Scientific Principles of Resource-Saving Technologies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions on the Life Cycle Stages of Landfills||Nataliya Nikolaevna Slyusar, PhD in Technical Sciences, Associate Professor at Environmental Protection Department||Marion Huber-Humer, Austria;
Erwin Binner, Austria;
Kerstin Kuchta, Germany;
Marco Ritzkowski, Germany
|The purpose of this project is to carry out scientific study and develop technology and technical solutions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions on the life cycle stages of landfills, including development of the system for post-operational monitoring of landfills.
The project is unique in offering integrated technical and technological solutions which, if being implemented in design and construction of waste disposal facilities, will help to monitor emissions of biogas, i.e. to maximize the use of biogas in active operation of the landfill and minimize the emissions on the post-operational stage.
The work performed will result in control mechanisms of greenhouse gas emissions at the landfill which are designed to maximize the recovery and recycling of biogas, minimize the time of impact on the environment, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
|IRG 17||Developing Scientific Improvement Principles of Technologies for Deep Optical and Mechanical Sorting of Municipal Waste to Extract the Resources Potential||Yakov Iosifovich Vaisman, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor at Environmental Protection Department||Christoph Wünsch, Germany||At present the problem of waste management is one of the priorities. In connection with the growth of urban environment there is an increase in the volume of consumption waste, 96% of which is disposed at landfills, and only about 4% is recycled.
An alternative approach to the management of solid domestic waste which is also of great importance, as far as saving exhaustible natural resources is concerned, is the re-use of material resources (recycling).
The objective of this project is to study the properties and composition of solid domestic waste and materials using a complex of deep optical and mechanical sorting.
The outcome of the work performed will be guidelines on determination of morphological composition of domestic waste by means of optical equipment of any producer, specifications and standard technical regulations for production of secondary fuels, and source data for design of waste management facilities (landfills, sorting plants, etc).